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History of Medan | Indonesia

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In ancient times the city of Medan is known as the Land Deli and swampy state of the land area of ​​approximately 4000 ha. Some of the rivers crossing the city of Medan and it all comes down to the Straits of Malacca. The rivers are Sei Deli, Babura Sei, Sei Sikambing, Sei Denai, White Sei, Sei Badra, Belawan and Sei Sei Sulang Mutual / Sei Apes.

The early history of the city of Medan

At first the settlement Medan opened Guru Patimpus is, its location in the Land Deli, since the colonial days people always couple with Deli Medan (Medan, Deli). After the time of independence over time the term Medan Deli gradually disappear so that the end is less popular. Formerly named the Land of the start of the Snake River Deli (Deli Serdang) down to the River Wampu in Langkat whereas Deli Sultanate ruling at that time did not cover the territory between the rivers.

Overall soil types in the Deli area consists of clay, sand, soil mix, black soil, brown soil and red soil. This is the study of Van Hissink in 1900, followed by research Vriens 1910 that in addition to the type of soil as there was again found that specific types of clay. This clay at the Dutch colonial place called Burnt Offering Stone (now the East Field or Menteng) the burning of high quality brick and one brick factory at the time it is Deli Klei.

About rainfall in the Land Deli classified two types namely: Maksima Main and Additional Maksima. Main maxima occur in the months of October s / d in December was the month of January Maksima Additional s / d September. In detail, the rainfall in Medan on average 2000 per year with an average intensity of 4.4 mm / h.

According to Volker Medan in 1860 is still a jungle here and there, especially dimuara estuaries settlements interspersed with people from Karo and the Malaya peninsula. In 1863 the Dutch began to open a tobacco plantation in Deli Land Deli was the star. Since then the economy continues to grow so that the field into the City center of government and the economy in North Sumatra.

At the beginning of its development is a small village named "Field Daughter". The development of Kampung Medan "Princess" is inseparable from its strategic position as it is situated at the confluence of rivers and streams Babura Deli, not far from the Green Princess now. Both of these rivers in ancient times the traffic is quite busy trade, and thus the Kampung Medan "Princess" which is the forerunner of the city of Medan, quickly evolved into a very important transit port.

More and more people flock to this village and wife who founded the village teacher Patimpus Medan gave birth to her first born a male and named the Kolok serving. Livelihoods of people in Kampung Medan which they named the Top Ten with two Kuta is the farming of pepper plant. Not long after the second child was born teacher and child Patimpus even this man called the Kecik. In his day is considered one Patimpus Teachers who were thinking ahead. This is proven by having the children studied (studying) to read the Qur'an to Datuk Build a City and then deepen the religion of Islam to Aceh.

Statement confirming that the Kampung Medan is a description of H. Muhammad Said is quoted in books Deli: In Woord en Beeld written by N. ten Cate. The statement said that the Kampung Medan old fort and the rest is still composed of two layers of wall-shaped roundabout located between two rivers namely dipertemuan River Deli and Babura river. Administrates the house located across the river from the village of Medan. If we see that the location of the Kampung Medan is in the House and the Castle now houses the office administrates the PTP IX Tobacco Deli is now.

Conquest Aceh

Around the year 1612 after two decades standing Kampung Medan, Sultan Iskandar Muda's ruling in the Sultanate of Aceh post commander who holds a named Gocah hero Admiral Bintan Horse to become leaders who represent the kingdom of Aceh in the Land Deli. Gocah Hero opens a new country in Sungai Lalang, Percut. As Mayor and Deputy Sultan of Aceh and Aceh empire by making use of greatness, Gocah hero managed to expand their territories, to include sub Percut Sei Tuan and the District of Medan Deli now. He also founded the villages of Mount Klarus, Sampali, City Build, Pulau Brayan, Java City, the City and Sigara Rengas Percut a fight.

With the emergence of a hero Gocah Deli Empire began developing in 1632 and married the daughter of Heroes Gocah Sunggal Datuk title "Sri Indra Baiduzzaman Surbakti". After the marriage of the kings in Kampung Medan Gocah give up on Heroes. Gocah hero died in 1653 and was succeeded by his son Tuangku Perunggit Commander, who then proclaimed the independence of the Sultanate of Deli Sultanate of Aceh in 1669, with its capital in Labuan, about 20 km from Medan.

Dutch period

Dutch who colonized the archipelago approximately three and a half centuries to master the Land Deli but they are very much under challenge is not small. Their experience of war in Java with Diponegoro circa 1825-1830. The Netherlands is very much a loss, while for the control of Sumatra, the Dutch war against Aceh, Minangkabau, and Sisingamangaraja XII in Tapanuli.

So in order to master the Land Deli Dutch only about 78 years starting from year 1864 to 1942. After the war ended before the Governor General of Java, Johannes van den Bosch Dutch troops deployed to Sumatra, and he expected to master the whole of Sumatra may take 25 years. Dutch conquest of the Sumatra is stalled in the middle of the road because of the Dutch Colonial Minister Jean Chr├ętien Baud then sent back the Dutch in Sumatra, although they have beaten Minangkabau known as Padri War (1821-1837).

Sultan Ismail, who ruled in Riau suddenly attacked by a mob boss named Britain by Adam Wilson. Because at that time limited the power of Sultan Ismail asked for protection in the Netherlands. Since then it is an opportunity for the Dutch for control of the Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura the king was Sultan Ismail. On February 1, 1858 Sultan Ismail urged the Netherlands to sign the agreement in order to conquer the kingdom of Siak Sri Indrapura including Deli Serdang Langkat and Sumatra into the Dutch East. Because the region has entered the Dutch Deli otomatislah Kampung Medan became the Dutch colony, but not the physical presence of the Dutch master Land Deli.

In 1858 Elisa also Netscher was appointed Resident District Riau and since then also he raised himself to defend the Sultan Ismail, who ruled the kingdom of Siak. Netscher's goal is to seat him as a defender of Sultan Ismail would be politically easier for local control Netscher Siak the Deli Sultanate conquests that included the village of Medan Putri.

Tobacco plantations


Medan did not experience rapid growth until the 1860's, when the Dutch authorities started to free up land for tobacco plantations. Jacob Nienhuys, Van der Falk, and Elliot, a Dutch tobacco traders pioneered the opening of the tobacco plantations in the Land Deli. Previously Nienhuys tobacco business in Java, moved to Surabaya Deli invited to an Arab named Said Abdullah Bilsagih, brother brother in law of Sultan Deli, Mahmud Alam Perkasa Deli. Nienhuys first time gardening tobacco on the premises of 4000 the Sultan of Deli in Cape Spassi Bahu, near Labuan. March 1864, sent a sample of tobacco Nienhuys the garden to Rotterdam, Netherlands to test its quality. Apparently, the tobacco leaves that are considered high-quality material for cigars. Melambunglah Deli name in Europe as a producer of the best cigar wrappers.

As written by Tengku Sinar Luckman in his book, explained that "the plantation coolies Chinese people are generally imported from Java, China, Singapore, or Malaysia." Dutch treat those Karo and Malays are lazy and can not resist making used as porters "

The rapid development of Kampung Medan "Princess", is also not free from tobacco plantations are very famous for its tobacco Delinya, which is the best tobacco for cigar wrappers. In 1863, Sultan Deli gave to Jacob Nienhuys, Van der Falk and Elliot of the firm Van Keeuwen en Mainz & Co., the land area of ​​4000 shoulder (1 shoulder = 0.74 ha) is erfpacht Sepassi 20 years at the Cape, near Labuan. Examples of tobacco deli. March 1864, examples of the crop delivered to Rotterdam in the Netherlands, to test its quality. It turned out that tobacco leaves are very good and high quality for cigar wrappers.

Dutch tobacco treaty signed by the Sultan of Deli in 1865. Lapse of two years, Nienhuys with Jannsen, P.W. Clement, and founded the company De Cremer Deli Maatschappij is abbreviated in Labuhan Deli Mij. In 1869, Nienhuys Deli Mij headquarters moved from Labuan to the Kampung Medan. The new office was built on the riverbank Deli, precisely in the office PTPN II (ex PTPN IX) now. With the transfer station, Medan quickly became a center of government and commerce activity, at once became the most dominating developments in western Indonesia. The rapid development of economic change Deli became the center of trade with the nickname het dollar mahsyur land alias land of money. They then open up new plantations in areas Martubung, Sunggal in 1869, as well as Rice and Klumpang river in 1875.

Then in 1866, Jannsen, P.W. Clement, Cremer and Deli Maatschappij Nienhuys established in Labuan. Then the expansion of new plantations in areas Martubung, Sunggal (1869), Rice and Klumpang River (1875), so the number reached 22 plantation companies in 1874. Given the activities of the tobacco trade is already very broad and growing, Nienhuys moved from Labuan to the corporate office Kampung Medan "Princess". Thus the "Kampung Medan Putri" is becoming increasingly crowded, and then developed with a name better known as the "city of Medan".

The development of Medan Putri became the center of trade has pushed into the center of government. 1879, the capital was moved from the Resident Assistant Deli Labuhan to Medan, March 1, 1887, the capital of East Sumatra resident of Bengkalis also moved to Medan, Deli Sultan's Palace, which was originally located in Kampung Bahari (Labuan) also moved with the completion of construction of the Palace Maimoon on 18 May 1891, and thus the capital was officially moved to Deli Medan.

In 1915 Residency of East Sumatra, improved his position to Gubernemen. In 1918 Medan officially became Gemeente (Township) with the Mayor Baron Daniel Mackay. Based on the "Acte van Schenking" (Deed of Grant) No. 97 Notary JM Junior de-Hondt, November 30, 1918, the Sultan of Deli give up land to the city of Medan Medan Gemeente, thus officially became the territory under direct rule of the Dutch East Indies. In the early days of this Township, Medan is comprised of four villages, namely Kesawan village, Kampung Sungai Rengas, and Kampung Kampung Hulu Petisah Petisah Downstream. In 1918 there were 43 826 inhabitants Medan soul consisting of 409 European men, Indonesia 35 009 people, 8269 people of China and other Eastern Foreign 139 people.

Since then more rapidly growing city of Medan. Various facilities are built. Some of these include the Office of Experiment Stations AVROS in Kampung Baru (1919), now RISPA, Brandan relationship Railway Base - Besitang (1919), the U.S. Consulate (1919), the School Teachers in Indonesia Jl. H. M. Yamin is now (1923), Weekly Soematra (1924), Association of Pool Field (1924), Central Market, RS Elizabeth Hospital Eye Clinic and Sports Ground Garden Flowers (1929).

Historically the development of Medan city, since its inception has been to position the center of trade (export-import) in the past. maketh the field as being the capital of deli also has made progress to the center of Medan city government. to date on the side is one of the city, as well as well as the capital of North Sumatra Province.

The Japanese Occupation

In 1942 the Dutch colonial rule ended in Sumatra when the Japanese landed in some areas such as Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Sumatra, the Japanese landed in East Sumatra.

Japanese troops landed in Sumatra was the army based in Shonanto XXV, better known by the name of Singapore, they landed precisely 11 pm on March 12, 1942. These forces consist of the Imperial Guards Division-2 coupled with the 18 Division led by the Letjend. Nishimura. There are four landing sites they are the Sabang, Ulele, Kuala Bugak (near Peureulak, East Aceh now) and the Cape Oysters (Coal area now).

Japanese troops landed at the Cape of Oyster is coming into the city of Medan, they ride bikes they buy from the people around him in barter. Their slogan that they help people because they are brothers Asia Old Asian people so that they dieluelukan welcome him.

When the transfer of power to the Japanese city of Medan Dutch mess, the natives use this opportunity to take revenge against the Netherlands. This situation immediately disciplined by the Japanese army to deploy troops called Kempetai (Japanese Military Police). With the inclusion of Japan in Medan circumstances soon change, especially its civil administration which the Dutch called by the Japanese gemeentebestuur transformed into Medan Sico (Municipal Government). Who served the civil administration in the Township of Medan when it's up to the end of Japanese rule named Hoyasakhi. To the level of residency in East Sumatra due to the heterogeneous society called Syucokan that when it is occupied by T.Nakashima, resident assistant called Gunseibu.

Japanese mastery of increasingly rampant in the city of Medan they make more poor people, because of the condition so they more easily control the entire archipelago, the motto is the motto of his old course. In the eastern city of Medan which is now built Kengrohositai Marindal kind of collective agriculture. In the area of ​​the Yellow Titi Medan Johor now not far from the airport Polonia now they build a foundation of military aircraft.

Period of Independence

Everywhere throughout Indonesia by the year 1945 Proclamation preparation resonates so well in the city of Medan do not miss the character of the young people doing various kinds of preparations. They heard that the atomic bomb hit the city of Hiroshima has fallen, meaning the power of Japan was paralyzed. While the desire to return to the allied forces occupied Indonesia.

Particularly in the city of Medan and surrounding areas, while Japanese authorities realized his defeat immediately stop all their activities, particularly those associated with the development and deployment of youth. What they had been doing to recruit the masses of youth as Heiho, romusha, Gyu Talapeta Gun and they break up or go back to the community. This activity formally dissolved on August 20, 1945 because on that day also the ruler of Japan in East Sumatra called Tetsuzo Nakashima announced the defeat of Japan. He also said that the task they dibekas occupation forces to maintain the status quo before handed over to the Allies. Most members of the former troops Heiho, romusha, Talapeta and exercise Gyu Gun feel confused because they squeezed the life they are given only where a limited pocket money, so they look brown uniform passing by in the middle of town.

Some youth leaders see it as taking the initiative to mitigate them. Mainly former officers among them Lieutenant Gyu Gun Achmad Tahir established a committee to tackle the former Heiho, romusha the family / relatives not in the city of Medan. The committee is named the "Committee for Ex-Gyu Unemployment Helper Gun" based on Jl. No.17 palace (now the Youth Building).

Dated August 17, 1945 the echo of independence has come to the city of Medan even though with somewhat stilted because of the state of communication at that time was very simple. Japanese news agency "Domei" existing representatives on the field but they do not want to broadcast the news of independence, consequently the more confused.

A small group of Allied soldiers precisely on 1 September 1945, led by Lieutenant Brondgeest Sailors arrived in the city of Medan and is based at the Hotel De Boer (now Dharma Deli Hotel). His job is to prepare the takeover of the Japanese. On when the Dutch army was also led by Westerling ally accompanied by a liaison officer named Major and Lieutenant Brondgeest Yacobs succeeded in establishing the Dutch police for the area East of Sumatra, whose members drawn from the ex-KNIL and Dutch pro-Japanese police.

Finally, with a tortuous journey of the youth held a variety of actions that somehow independence must be upheld in Indonesia as well as in the city of Medan is a part. They are Achmad Tahir, Amir Bachrum Nasution, Edisaputra, Rustam Efendy, Ghazali Ibrahim, Lila Roos, A.malik Munir, Bahrum Djamil, Lubis and Marzuki Muhammad Kasim Jusni.

The 1990s and 2000s

In 1998, from 1 to May 12, Medan riots hit the starting point of the riots that followed throughout Indonesia, including the May 1998 incident in Jakarta a week later. In the unrest associated with the movement of "Reform", there have been arson, vandalism, and looting can not be stopped by security forces.

Tragedies on the duration until the riots in May 1998 during the tanggl May 12 until now because it can not work and education offices again ahead of his time during the public holiday does not rise from the mass media, while Polonia International Airport from all open 24-hours a day, On May 21, promptly at 2:00 pm as a major public holiday has been the closing ceremony of the airport stopped all come together to move to Kuala Lumpur (the capital city of Malaysia) who did not return home again and from the airport to the aircraft's Malaysia Airlines flight arriving Airbus A330 Flight to Kuala Lumpur International Airport (formerly Airport Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah) from the Subang Jaya, Petaling City, State Chart Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia Regional, State Malaysia.

Currently the city of Medan has been re-lit. Construction of public facilities and infrastructure intensively conducted. Although the number of damaged roads, holes are still there, but when compared to previously, has been greatly decreased. [Citation needed] the classical constraints faced by modern cities such as Medan is the congestion caused by the rapidly increasing number of vehicles in a matter of months, not able to be offset by an increase adequate road facilities.
Ibrahim Lubis

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Title: History of Medan | Indonesia
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